What is Cyber Security? Definition, Types, Courses & More

Cyber Security

What is Cyber Security?

The process or activity of protecting the programs, systems, and networks from several kinds of digital attacks and ensuring network security is known as Cyber Security or cybersecurity. The main motive of these digital attacks is to change, destroy, or access the private and sensitive information stored in the systems. The attacks can also be performed to interrupt the business processes or even extort money from the system owners.

The implementation of cybersecurity has become more challenging than before. Because the number of devices on the planet is more than the number of users using them. Also, More than 7.9 Billion of records exposed in data breaches 2019 alone and it keeps on increasing every year. The thinking and minds of the attackers are very innovative. They are able to find a way to get into a system easily even if the encryption is done successfully. So, every user should take all the necessary steps in order to keep their systems safe from all the vulnerabilities.

Types of Cyber Security Threats

Common types of Cyber Security Threats mentioned below:

1. Phishing:

Attackers very well know what users think whenever they receive an email as no one will open an unknown email that doesn’t look appealing to the user. The attackers use several phishing techniques in order to make the target open the provided link so that the malware or virus is installed in their system. They can even pretend to be someone the targets very well know or even a well-known personality. This makes the targets take the actions that attackers want easily. These attacks are the most difficult ones to stop as the impulses and curiosity of the human beings are involved in the process and manipulated as well. 

2. Denial-of-Service (DoS):

A denial-of-service or DoS attack makes a website flooded with more traffic than it can handle which makes it overloaded. Most of the traffic in these cases is malicious. It becomes very difficult for the website to serve all the required things which the users are demanding at the same time and the server gets overloaded. The attacks perform this attack in order to shut a website down so that no user can access it for the time till it is restored. When many computers perform DoS attacks at the same time, it is known as Distributed Denial-of-Service Attack or DDoS. It is very difficult to overcome these kinds of attacks as many different IP addresses are involved from different parts of the world at the same time. The source of the attack cannot be known so easily due to this.

3. Credential Reuse:

Nowadays, there are so many websites where users are registered through the login id and password. It becomes very difficult to remember this much of ids and passwords in the same human brain. This makes the users reuse the credentials for some other websites or systems as well. Many people still reuse their credentials even after top organizations advise not to. The attackers take the benefit from this fact. They are able to arrange the username and password from a breached server. And They try to use the same credentials on other systems or websites and many times the credentials match which leads to misuse of the data. They can also try the same keys for the files locked through encryption in order to decrypt them.

4. Ransomware:

Ransomware is a form of malware that is designed to restrict access to a computer device or data until the payment of a ransom is made. It can spread through phishing emails or by visiting an infected website without knowing it.

5. Malware:

Any kind of file or program harmful to the user of the computer system is known as malware. It is also known as malicious software. Trojans, Viruses, spyware, and worms are some of the examples of malware.

6. Social Engineering:

It refers to manipulating the mind of the targets psychologically to make them do the desired work and divulge the sensitive or confidential information also.

7. Unpatched Software:

The software about which company or users are aware that it contains harmful vulnerabilities but not able to fix it. If they are not fed with regular software and security updates, the users are considered solely responsible for any harm caused to their data or computer system.

Challenges of Cyber Security

All the efforts which an organization makes towards cybersecurity need to be well-coordinated in order to make sure that cybersecurity practiced by them is effective enough to stop and prevent the cyber-attacks. The security risks keep changing and evolving with time. This is the biggest challenge that cybersecurity face nowadays.

The threats advance and evolve at a speed very high than the speed which organizations try to cope up with the latest challenges cyber-security has for them. The real-time assessments and continuous monitoring of the system should be the latest approach in order to tackle all the cybersecurity threats in an effective way as suggested by the guidelines issued by NIST. 

Importance of Cyber Security

The importance of cybersecurity can be felt by the fact that the data in a very high number is stored, collected, and processed by the huge organizations throughout the world such as corporate, government, medical, military, and financial companies also.

Most of the saved or processed data contains very sensitive information. If this information gets leaked, these organization and their clients will have to face huge losses. Cybersecurity help all these organizations in protecting all the important and sensitive data stored in their systems and being shared across the world every second. The steps and actions required for effective cybersecurity keep evolving and changing with the changes or the growth of the cyber-attacks in the world. 

What is Cyberwarfare?

Whenever a country tries to disrupt the computer system of other countries with the help of digital attacks through hacking and viruses, it is known as cyberwarfare. The main motive for this is to create death tolls, damage, and destruction to other country’s cyber security.


When the predetermined rules and regulations for the security of the systems are made, the firewall manages and observes all the incoming and outgoing network traffic. A secure wall is built between trusted and untrusted connections so that the vulnerabilities don’t reach harm the systems. A Firewall is very useful in Cyber Security to protect your network from intruders.

Cyber Security Courses & Certifications

Here is the list of Cyber Security Courses and Certifications:

1. CISA (Certified Information Security Auditor):

The controls and monitoring skills of the information systems are focused on the Certified Information Security Auditor certification. The exam of CISA is considered one of the toughest among the cybersecurity courses. The eligibility includes a minimum of 5 years of experience as an IT professional. The plugging and identification of vulnerabilities are involved in this course in an enterprise environment.

2. GPEN (GIAC Penetration Tester):

The aim of this certification is to uncover all the weaknesses and vulnerabilities in the IT systems. It helps in developing the skills required for this purpose. It makes the students learn how they can ethically penetrate the IT systems so that no cyber laws are violated through the activity.

3. CEH (Certified Ethical Hacker):

All the malware and hacking tools used during this certification are just as same as used by the hackers. But they are used in a good way, not in an unethical way. The vulnerabilities and weaknesses are explored by these ethical hackers in the systems of a company. With the help of these explored vulnerabilities, these ethical hackers work towards finding the preventive measures to these attacks so that the systems can become more secure towards all the kinds of possible attacks.

4. CompTIA Security+:

This certification is globally recognized. All the best practices available in the IT are performed in this certification. All the important risk management, organizational and security systems, identity management essentials are covered by it along with the attack prevention.

5. GSEC (GIAC Security Essentials):

Freshers who want to make or develop their careers in cybersecurity can enroll in this certification. Professionals and students having hands-on experience in the IT systems are most suitable for GSEC. It is also known as the Global Information Assurance Certification. Students having no IT certification can also enroll in this program. 

6. CISM (Certified Information, Systems Manager):

The management of information security is highly focused on this certification. The eligibility of this program demands a minimum of 5 years of diverse experience in the cybersecurity and IT field.

7. OWASP TOP 10:

The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is recognized globally by all the developers. In order to perform secure coding, it is considered as the first and main step. It helps in minimizing all the risks and vulnerabilities in the web applications.

Other popular certification and courses are CCISO, CISSP, CRISC, etc. Also, People who want to learn lessons or take courses about cyber security can register on the website of cybrary. It provides very helpful and informative lessons about cyber security. The website is very user-friendly and safe also.

Cyber Security Jobs

Cyber Security ranks no. 1 in Information Technology Industry and it offers highest paying jobs around the globe. Average salary for Cyber Security Jobs falls between 90,000 and 160,000 USD. Here is the list of Cyber Security Jobs:

  1. Freelance Bug Bounty Hunters: It is expected that the zero-day exploits will be rising at a rapid pace. There are some software codes which may have some bugs before they are published. These flaws make the system vulnerable to several kinds of attacks. This makes the position of freelance bug bounty hunters open up to $500,000 per year.
  2. Chief Information Security Officer: The type and size of the organization can decide the total compensation for the CISO posts. There are some big companies that pay from $380,000 to $420,000 to CISOs per year. In order to make the planning successful, the IT companies are starting to add Deputy CISO post also. The range of compensation they earn can be estimated between $200,000 to $250,000.
  3. Penetration Tester: A Penetration Tester checks and exploits all the vulnerabilities to security in web-based applications, systems, and network security as well. In short, the penetration testers are paid to hack the systems under legal regulations. They earn between $49,252 to $134,946.
  4. IT Security Consultant: They analyze vulnerability tools, networks security, and computer systems, in order to develop and execute the best security approaches to meet the needs of an enterprise. They earn about $92,945 to $110,797.
  5. Software Security Engineers: Their duty involves maintaining, planning, implementing, and developing the strategy for software security of a company with the help of several tactics and testing methods. They earn an average of $115,250 of total compensation per year. cryptovirology helps in learning and implementing how the professionals can use cryptography for security purpose.


Cybersecurity is a practice that involves making the systems secure from all kinds of vulnerabilities which can have very severe effects when attacked on the systems. The highly dynamic and evolving IT environment makes it a big challenge to ensure proper security of the systems from the innovative minds of the attackers and their tactics. Credential reuse, phishing, and DoS attacks are some of the types of cybersecurity threats. It also has a job market for posts such as CISO, deputy CISO, freelancers, etc. while having a wide variety of certification courses like GSEC, CISM, GPEN, and more.

Reference : Cyber Security Wiki

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